Bufo

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True Toads
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Bufo_periglenes1.jpg



Monte Verde Toad (Bufo periglenes)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Amphibia
Order:Anura
Family:Bufonidae
Genus:Bufo
Species

See text.

Bufo, Laurenti, 1768 is a large genus of more than 250 species of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae.


Contents

Description

This is a truly cosmopolitan genus, able to live under adverse conditions. However, they do not occur in the Arctic regions, Australia, with the exception of the introduced Marine Toad (Bufo marinus), New Guinea and the neighbouring islands.

They have in common a stocky figure and short legs, which makes them poor jumpers. As with all members of the toad family Bufonidae, they lack a tail, they lack teeth and they have horizontal pupils. Their dry skin is thick and warty.

Behind their eyes, you can find a wartlike structure, the paratoid glands. These glands distinguish the true toads from all other tailless amphibians. They secrete a fat, white poisonous substance. This is their defense mechanism against predators, which will think twice before eating another toad. Some species, such as the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus) can paralyze or kill small animals. On the other hand, some animals can eat toads with no consequence. The effect on people, bitten by a toad, is a painful swelling of the skin. Ordinary handling of toads is not dangerous (and it certainly does not cause warts !). The venom of the Sonoran Desert Toad (Bufo alvarius) contains bufotoxin and is a potent hallucinogen. The venom's psychoactive effects, well known by the Precolumbian Native Americans, have made it an occasional source of abuse well into modern times.

Toads can also inflate their body, when treatened. Males are usually smaller than females. Male toads also posses the organ of Bidder, an incomplete ovary. The adult males of many species show a dark throat.

Two species are found in the British Isles: the Common Toad (Bufo bufo), and the Natterjack Toad, (Bufo calamita). The former is found almost everywhere. The Natterjack, which differs in its shorter limbs with nearly free toes (which are so short that the toad never hops but proceeds in a running gait) and in usually possessing orange/red warts, green eyes & a pale yellow line along the middle of the back, is local in England, the south-west of Scotland, and the west of Ireland. It is further remarkable for the very loud croak of the males, produced by a large vocal bladder on the throat which, when inflated, is larger than the head.

Groups

Species in this genus can be quite different, which may cause eventually this genus to be split in several genera. At the moment, the relationships between the different species are tentatively formalized by categorizing them into groups :

  • Bufo americanus group
  • Bufo angusticeps group
  • Bufo arabicus group
  • Bufo asper group
  • Bufo blanfordi group
  • Bufo bufo group
  • Bufo debilis group.
  • Bufo granulosus group
  • Bufo margaritifer group
  • Bufo nesiotes, Bufo hypomelas, and the Bufo guttatus group might warrant generic recognition.
  • Bufo peltocephalus group (former Peltophryne).
  • Bufo punctatus group (including the Bufo debilis group).
  • Bufo regularis group
  • Bufo scaber group
  • Bufo stomaticus group
  • Bufo taitanus complex may be paraphyletic with respect to Didynamipus; no unambiguous evidence of monophyly supports this taxon.
  • Bufo tuberosus group.
  • Bufo valliceps group.
  • Bufo veraguensis group.
  • Bufo vertebralis group
  • Bufo viridis group.
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Bufo_alvarius1.jpg
Colorado River Toad (Bufo alvarius)

Species

  • Bufo achalensis Cei, 1972 : Cordoba Toad - Previously confused with Bufo spinulosus
  • Bufo achavali Maneyro, Arrieta and de Sa, 2004
  • Bufo acutirostris Spix, 1824
  • Bufo ailaoanus Kou, 1984 : Ejia Toad, Ailao Toad
  • Bufo alatus Thominot, 1884 - Possibly synonym of Bufo acutirostris
  • Bufo alvarius Girard in Baird, 1859 : Colorado River Toad, Sonoran Desert Toad, Girard's Toad
  • Bufo amabilis Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003
  • Bufo amatolicus Hewitt, 1925 : Amatola Toad
  • Bufo amboroensis Harvey and Smith, 1993 : Cochabamba Toad
  • Bufo americanus Holbrook, 1836 : American Toad - There is introgressive hybridization, along species boundaries. The status of the subspecies is still in doubt.
    • Bufo americanus americanus Holbrook, 1836 : Eastern American Toad
    • Bufo americanus charlesmithi Bragg, 1954 : Dwarf American Toad
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Bufo_americanus1.jpg
American Toad (Bufo americanus)
  • Bufo amieti Tandy and Perret, 2000
  • Bufo anderssoni Melin, 1941 : Andersson's Toad
  • Bufo andrewsi Schmidt, 1925 : Andrew's Toad, West China Toad
  • Bufo angusticeps Smith, 1848 : Sand Toad, Common Cape Toad, Narrow-headed Toad
  • Bufo arabicus heyden, 1827 : Arabian Toad
  • Bufo arborescandens Duellman and Schulte, 1992 : Mendoza Pass Toad
  • Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867 : Argentine Toad
  • Bufo arequipensis Vellard, 1959 : Rio Chili Toad
  • Bufo arunco Molina, 1782 : Concepcion Toad
  • Bufo asmarae Tandy, Bogart, Largen, and Feener, 1982 : Asmara Toad
  • Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829 : Java Toad, Malayan Giant Toad, Rough Toad, River Toad, Giant Asiatic Toad, Barking Toad
  • Bufo aspinius (Yang, Liu, and Rao, 1996)
  • Bufo atacamensis Cei, 1962 : Vallenar Toad, Atacama Toad
  • Bufo atukoralei Bogert and Senanayake, 1966 : Yala Toad, Atukorale's Dwarf Toad
  • Bufo bankorensis Barbour, 1908 : Central Formosa Toad, Bankor Toad
  • Bufo baxteri Porter, 1968 : Wyoming Toad, Baxter's Toad - This species used to be a subspecies of Bufo hemiophrys, other still consider it to be the subspecies Bufo americanus hemiophrys.
  • Bufo beddomii Günther, 1876 : Beddome's Toad
  • Bufo beebei Gallardo, 1965 : Rivero's Toad
  • Bufo beiranus Loveridge, 1932 : Beira's Toad
  • Bufo bergi Céspedez, 2000
  • Bufo biporcatus Gravenhorst, 1829 : Indonesian Toad, Philippine Toad, Crested Toad
  • Bufo blanfordii Boulenger, 1882 : Blanford's Toad
  • Bufo blombergi Myers and Funkhouser, 1951 : Colombian Giant Toad, Blomberg's Toad
  • Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877 : Bocourt's Toad
  • Bufo boreas Baird and Girard, 1852 : Western Toad, Boreal Toad - The geographic variation within this species is needs more study. It may mask a number of cryptic species.
    • Bufo boreas boreas Baird and Girard, 1852 : Boreal Toad
    • Bufo boreas halophilus Baird and Girard, 1853 : California Toad
    • Bufo boreas nelsoni Stejneger, 1893 : Amargosa Toad
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Bufo_boreas1.jpg
Western Toad (Bufo boreas)
  • Bufo brauni Nieden, 1911 : Braun's Toad, Dead-leaf Toad
  • Bufo brevirostris Rao, 1937 : Kempholey Toad, Short-nosed Toad, Rao's Pale Brown Toad
  • Bufo brongersmai Hoogmoed, 1972 : Tiznit Toad
  • Bufo buchneri Peters, 1882 : Buchner's Toad
  • Bufo bufo Linnaeus, 1758 : Common Toad, Common European Toad
  • Bufo burmanus Andersson, 1939 : Burma Toad
  • Bufo caeruleostictus Günther, 1859
  • Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768 : British Toad, Natterjack Toad
  • Bufo californicus Camp, 1915 : Arroyo Toad, Mexican Arroyo Toad - Sometimes regarded as Bufo microscaphus californicus
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Bufo_californicus1.jpg
Arroyo Toad (Bufo californicus)
  • Bufo camerunensis Parker, 1936 : Oban Toad
  • Bufo campbelli Mendelson, 1994 : Campbell's Forest Toad, Campbell's Rainforest Toad
  • Bufo canaliferus Cope, 1877 : Dwarf Toad
  • Bufo canorus Camp, 1916 : Yosemite Toad
  • Bufo castaneoticus Caldwell, 1991 : Para Toad
  • Bufo cataulaciceps Schwartz, 1959 : Schwartz's Caribbean Toad
  • Bufo cavifrons Firschein, 1950 : Mountain Toad
  • Bufo celebensis Günther, 1859 : Celebes Toad
  • Bufo ceratophys Boulenger, 1882 : Horned Toad
  • Bufo chavin Lehr, Köhler, Aguilar, and Ponce, 2001
  • Bufo chudeaui Chabanaud, 1919 : Bata Marsh Toad
  • Bufo claviger Peters, 1863 : Benkulen Toad
  • Bufo coccifer Cope, 1866 : Southern Roundgland Toad
  • Bufo cognatus Say, 1823 : Great Plains Toad
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Great Plains Toad (Bufo cognatus)
  • Bufo compactilis Wiegmann, 1833 : Plateau Toad, Texas Toad
  • Bufo coniferus Cope, 1862 : Evergreen Toad
  • Bufo cophotis Boulenger, 1900 : Paramo Toad
  • Bufo corynetes Duellman and Ochoa-M., 1991 : Abra Malaga Toad
  • Bufo cristatus Wiegmann, 1833 : Large-crested Toad
  • Bufo cristiglansInger and Menzies, 1961 : Tingi Hills Toad
  • Bufo cristinae Vélez-Rodriguez and Ruiz-Carranza, 2002
  • Bufo crocus Wogan, Win, Thin, Lwin, Shein, Kyi, and Tun, 2003
  • Bufo crucifer Wied-Neuwied, 1821 : Striped Toad
  • Bufo cryptotympanicus Liu and Hu, 1962 : Earless Toad
  • Bufo cyphosus Ye, 1977 : Projective-occiputed Toad
  • Bufo damaranus Mertens, 1954
  • Bufo danielae Perret, 1977 : Ivory Coast Toad
  • Bufo dapsilis Myers and Carvalho, 1945 : Bom Jardim Toad
  • Bufo debilis Girard, 1854 : Green Toad - The subspecies may be no more than clines.
    • Bufo debilis debilis Girard, 1854 : Eastern Green Toad
    • Bufo debilis insidior Girard, 1854 : Western Green Toad
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Western Green Toad (Bufo debilis insidior)
  • Bufo dhufarensis Parker, 1931 : Oman Toad - very similar to Bufo scorteccii
  • Bufo diptychus Cope, 1862 : Cope's Toad
  • Bufo divergens Peters, 1871
  • Bufo djohongensis Hulselmans, 1977
  • Bufo dodsoni Boulenger, 1895 : Dodson's Toad
  • Bufo dombensis Bocage, 1895 : Dombe Toad
  • Bufo dorbignyi Duméril and Bibron, 1841 : Dorbigny's Toad
  • Bufo empusus (Cope, 1862) : Cope's Caribbean Toad, Cuban Toad
  • Bufo exsul Myers, 1942 : Black Toad, Inyo Toad, Deep Springs Toad - Sometimes considered to be a subspecies of Bufo boreas.
  • Bufo fastidiosus (Cope, 1875) : Pico Blanco Toad
  • Bufo fenoulheti Hewitt and Methuen, 1912 : Newington Toad, Fenoulhet's Toad, Transvaal Dwarf Toad
  • Bufo fernandezae Gallardo, 1957 : Bella Vista Toad
  • Bufo fissipes Boulenger, 1903 : Carabaya Toad
  • Bufo fluviaticus Schwartz, 1972 : Dominican Caribbean Toad
  • Bufo fowleri Hinckley, 1882 : Fowler's Toad - There is still some discussion about the validity of this genus.
  • Bufo fractus Schwartz, 1972
  • Bufo fuliginatus Witte, 1932 : Shaba Province Toad, Sooty Toad
  • Bufo funereus Bocage, 1866 : Angola Toad, Somber Toad
  • Bufo fustiger Schwartz, 1960 :
  • Bufo galeatus Günther, 1864 : Gamboja Toad, Bony-headed Toad
  • Bufo gallardoi Carrizo, 1992 : Gallardo's Toad
  • Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842 : Chusan Island Toad, Asiatic Toad
  • Bufo gariepensis Smith, 1848 : Karroo Toad, Gariep Toad
  • Bufo garmani Meek, 1897 : Garman's Toad, Olive Toad, Northern Mottled Toad
  • Bufo gemmifer Taylor, 1940 : Jeweled Toad
  • Bufo glaberrimus Günther, 1869 : Cundinamarca Toad
  • Bufo gnustae Gallardo, 1967 : Rio Grande Toad - Poorly known
  • Bufo gracilipes Boulenger, 1899 : French Congo Toad
  • Bufo grandisonae Poynton and Haacke, 1993 : Mossamedes Toad, Grandison's Toad
  • Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 : Common Lesser Toad, Granular Toad
  • Bufo guentheri Cochran, 1941 : Gunther's Caribbean Toad
  • Bufo gundlachi Ruibal, 1959 : Gundlach's Caribbean Toad
  • Bufo guttatus Schneider, 1799 : Spotted Toad, Smooth-sided Toad
  • Bufo gutturalis Power, 1927 : Lobatsi Toad, Guttural Toad, Square-marked Toad
  • Bufo haematiticus Cope, 1862 : Truando Toad
  • Bufo hemiophrys Cope, 1886 : Canadian Toad - See comments under Bufo baxteri.
  • Bufo himalayanus Günther, 1864 : Himalaya Toad, Himalayan Broad-skulled Toad
  • Bufo hoeschi Ahl, 1934 : Okahandja Toad, Hoesch's Toad
  • Bufo holdridgei Taylor, 1952 : Holdridge's Toad
  • Bufo hololius Günther, 1876 : Malabar Toad, Gûnther's Toad
  • Bufo houstonensis Sanders, 1953 : Houston Toad
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Bufo_houstonensis1.jpg
Houston Toad (Bufo houstonensis)
  • Bufo hypomelas Boulenger, 1913 : Choco Toad
  • Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954 : Jalapa Toad
  • Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 : Yellow Cururu Toad
  • Bufo inca Stejneger, 1913 : Inca Toad
  • Bufo intermedius Günther, 1858 : Gunther's Tropical Toad
  • Bufo inyangae Poynton, 1963 : Inyanga Toad
  • Bufo iserni (Jiménez de la Espada, 1875) : Rio Perene Toad
  • Bufo japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, 1838 : Japanese Toad
    • Bufo japonicus formosus Matsui, 1984 : Eastern Japanese Common Toad - validity in doubt
    • Bufo japonicus hokkaidoensis Kawamura, Nishioka and Ueda, 1980 - validity in doubt
    • Bufo japonicus japonicus Matsui, 1984 : Western Japanese Common Toad
    • Bufo japonicus montanus Kawamura, Nishioka and Ueda, 1980
    • Bufo japonicus yakushimensis Kawamura, Nishioka and Ueda, 1980
  • Bufo jimi Stevaux, 2002
  • Bufo justinianoi Harvey and Smith, 1994 : El Chape Toad
  • Bufo juxtasper Inger, 1964 : Sungei Tawan Toad, Giant River Toad
  • Bufo kabischi Herrmann and Kühnel, 1997
  • Bufo kassasii Baha El Din, 1993 : Damietta Toad
  • Bufo kavangensis Poynton and Broadley, 1988 : Khwai River Toad, Kavanga Toad, Kavango Toad
  • Bufo kelloggi Taylor, 1938 : Little Mexican Toad
  • Bufo kerinyagae Keith, 1968 : Keith's Toad
  • Bufo kisoloensis Loveridge, 1932 : Kisolo Toad
  • Bufo kotagamai Fernando and Dayawansa, 1994 : Kotagama's Dwarf Toad
  • Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 : Humbali Village Toad, Koyna Toad, Chrome-yellow Toad
  • Bufo kumquat Das and Lim, 2001
  • Bufo langanoensis Largen, Tandy, and Tandy, 1978 : Lake Langano Toad
  • Bufo latastii Boulenger, 1882 : Ladakh Toad, Lataste's Toad, Vertebral-banded Toad
  • Bufo latifrons Boulenger, 1900 : High Tropical Forest Toad
  • Bufo lemairii Boulenger, 1901 : Pweto Toad, Lemaire's Toad, Yellow Swamp Toad
  • Bufo lemur (Cope, 1869) : Lowland Caribbean Toad, Puerto Rican Crested Toad
  • Bufo leucomyos McCranie and Wilson, 2000
  • Bufo limensis Werner, 1901 : Peru Coast Toad
  • Bufo lindneri Mertens, 1955 : Dar-es-Salaam Toad, Lindner's Toad
  • Bufo longinasus Stejneger, 1905 : Stejneger's Caribbean Toad
  • Bufo lonnbergi Andersson, 1911 : Lonberg's Toad
  • Bufo luetkenii Boulenger, 1891 : Yellow Toad
  • Bufo lughenisis Loveridge, 1932 : Lugh Toad
  • Bufo luristanicus Schmidt, 1952
  • Bufo macrocristatus Firschein and Smith, 1957 : Large-crested Toad
  • Bufo macrotis Boulenger, 1887 : Big-eared Toad
  • Bufo maculatus Hallowell, 1854 : Hallowell's Toad, Flat-backed Toad, Striped Toad
  • Bufo margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768) : South American Common Toad, Mitred Toad
  • Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) : Marine Toad, Cane Toad, Giant Toad - No subspecies currently defined, but possible.
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Bufo_marinus_1.jpg
Marine Toad (Bufo marinus)
  • Bufo marmoreus Wiegmann, 1833 : Marbled Toad, Wiegmann's Toad
  • Bufo mauritanicus Schlegel, 1841 : Berber Toad, Pantherine Toad, Moroccan Toad
  • Bufo mazatlanensis Taylor, 1940 : Sinaloa Toad
  • Bufo melanochlorus Cope, 1877 : Dark Green Toad
  • Bufo melanopleura Schmidt and Inger, 1959 : Kankunde Toad, Dark-sided Toad
  • Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799 : Southeast Asian Toad, Asiatic Toad, House Toad, Black-spectacled Toad, Black-spined Toad, Common Indian Toad
    • Bufo melanostictus hazarensis Khan, 2002 : Hazara Toad
  • Bufo mexicanus Brocchi, 1879 : Mexican Spadefoot Toad
  • Bufo microscaphus Cope, 1867 : Arizona Toad, Fort Mojave Toad, Southwestern Toad - This species formerly included as subspecies the species Bufo californicus and Bufo mexicanus.
  • Bufo microtympanum Boulenger, 1882 : Small-eared Toad, Southern Hill Toad
  • Bufo minshanicus Stejneger, 1926 : Gansu Toad, Minshan Toad
  • Bufo mocquardi Angel, 1924
  • Bufo nasicus Werner, 1903 : Werner's Toad
  • Bufo nebulifer Girard, 1843 : Gulf Coast Toad - Used to be the northern subspecies of Bufo valliceps.
  • Bufo nelsoni Stejneger, 1893 : Amargosa Toad
  • Bufo nesiotes Duellman and Toft, 1979 : Laguna Toad - may not be a Bufo
  • Bufo noellerti Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998
  • Bufo nyikae Loveridge, 1953 : Nyika Dwarf Toad
  • Bufo oblongus Nikolskii, 1896 : Danatea Toad, Middle Asiatic Toad
  • Bufo occidentalis Camerano, 1879 : Pine Toad
  • Bufo ocellatus Günther, 1858 : Ocellated Toad
  • Bufo olivaceus Blanford, 1874 : Olive Toad, Baluchistan Coastal Toad, Makran Toad
  • Bufo pageoti Bourret, 1937 : Tonkin Toad
  • Bufo pantherinus Smith, 1828 : Panther Toad, Southern Panther Toad
  • Bufo pardalis Hewitt, 1935 : Gleniffer Toad, Leopard Toad, August Toad, Snoring Toad
  • Bufo parietalis Boulenger, 1882 : Indian Toad, Ridged Toad, Timber Forest Toad
  • Bufo parkeri Loveridge, 1932 : Parker's Toad
  • Bufo parvus Boulenger, 1887 : Lesser Malacca Toad, Straight-ridge Toad, Red Small Toad, Keel-headed Toad
  • Bufo peltocephalus Tschudi, 1838 : Tschudi's Caribbean Toad, Cuban Toad
  • Bufo pentoni Anderson, 1893 : Shaata Gardens Toad, Penton's Toad
  • Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967 : Alajuela Toad, Golden Toad, Monte Verde Toad
  • Bufo peripatetes Savage, 1972 : Almirante Trail Toad
  • Bufo perplexus Taylor, 1943 : Confusing Toad
  • Bufo perreti Schiøtz, 1963 : Perret's Toad
  • Bufo pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898 :
  • Bufo philippinicus Boulenger, 1887 :
  • Bufo poeppigii Tschudi, 1845 : Gray Toad
  • Bufo poweri v : Kimberley Toad, Power's Toad
  • Bufo proboscideus (Spix, 1824)
  • Bufo pseudoraddei Mertens, 1971 : Swat Green Toad
    • Bufo pseudoraddei baturae Stöck, Schmid, Steinlein, and Grosse, 1999  : Batura Toad
    • Bufo pseudoraddei pseudoraddei Stöck, Schmid, Steinlein, and Grosse, 1999  : Swat Green Toad
  • Bufo punctatus Baird and Girard, 1852 : Baird's Spotted Toad, Red-spotted Toad - This species may be a composite of different species.
Missing image
Bufo.punctatus.web.jpg
Red-spotted Toad (Bufo punctatus)
  • Bufo pygmaeus Myers and Carvalho, 1952 : Rio Parahyba Toad
  • Bufo quadriporcatus Boulenger, 1887 : Greater Malacca Toad, Four-ridged Toad
  • Bufo quechua Gallardo, 1961 : Incachaca Toad
  • Bufo quercicus Holbrook, 1840 : Oak Toad
  • Bufo raddei Strauch, 1876 : Tengger Desert Toad, Mongolian Toad, Piebald Toad, Radde's Toad
  • Bufo rangeri Hewitt, 1935 : Kei Road Toad, Ranger's Toad, Raucous Toad
  • Bufo reesi Poynton, 1977 : Merera Toad
  • Bufo regularis Reuss, 1833 : Square-marked Toad, African Toad
  • Bufo retiformis Sanders and Smith, 1951 : Sonoran Green Toad
  • Bufo robinsoni Branch and Braacke, 1996 : Paradise Toad
  • Bufo roqueanus Melin, 1941
  • Bufo rubescens Lutz, 1925 : Rusty Toad
  • Bufo rubropunctatus Guichenot, 1848 : Red-spotted Toad
  • Bufo rumbolli Carrizo, 1992 : Salta Toad
  • Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799 : Ferguson’s Toad
  • Bufo schmidti (Grandison, 1972) : Schmidt's Snouted Frog
  • Bufo schneideri Werner, 1894 : Schnieder's Toad
  • Bufo scitulus Caramaschi and Niemeyer, 2003
  • Bufo sclerocephalus Mijares-Urrutia and Arends-R., 2001
  • Bufo scorteccii Balletto and Cherchi, 1970 : Scortecci’s Toad
  • Bufo silentvalleyensis Pillai, 1981 : Silent Valley Toad, South Indian Hill Toad
  • Bufo simus Schmidt, 1857 : Flatnose Toad
  • Bufo speciosus Girard, 1854 : Texas Toad, Northern Sonora Toad
  • Bufo spiculatus Mendelson, 1997
  • Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann, 1834 : Warty Toad
  • Bufo stanlaii Lötters and Köhler, 2000
  • Bufo steindachneri Pfeffer, 1893 : Steindachner’s Toad
  • Bufo stejnegeri Schmidt, 1931 : Stejneger's Toad, Korean Toad, Water Toad
  • Bufo sternosignatus Günther, 1858 : Falcon Toad
  • Bufo stomaticus Lütken, 1864 : Assam Toad, Indus Valley Toad, Marbled Toad
  • Bufo stuarti Smith, 1929 : Stuart’s Toad
  • Bufo sumatranus Peters, 1871 : Sumatra Toad
  • Bufo superciliaris Boulenger, 1888 : Zaire Toad, Cameroon Toad
  • Bufo surdus Boulenger, 1891 : Pakistan Toad, Iranian Toad, Luristan Toad
  • Bufo tacanensis Smith, 1952 : Volcan Tacana Toad
  • Bufo taiensis Rödel and Ernst, 2000
  • Bufo taitanus Peters, 1878 : Taita Toad, Black-chested Dwarf Toad
  • Bufo taladai Schwartz, 1960 : Cuban Caribbean Toad
  • Bufo terrestris (Bonnaterre, 1789) : Southern Toad, Common American Toad - Hybridises with Bufo americanus
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Bufo_terrestris1.jpg
Southern Toad (Bufo terrestris)
  • Bufo tibetanus Zarevskij, 1926 : Tibetan Toad
  • Bufo tihamicus Balletto and Cherchi, 1973 : Balletto's Toad
  • Bufo togoensis Ahl, 1924 : Togo Toad
  • Bufo torrenticola Matsui, 1976 : Honshu Toad, Japanese Stream Toad
  • Bufo tuberculatus Zarevskij, 1926 : Qinghai Lake Toad, Round-warted Toad
  • Bufo tuberosus Günther, 1858 : Fernando Po Toad
  • Bufo turkanae Tandy and Feener, 1985 : Lake Turkana Toad
  • Bufo tutelarius Mendelson, 1997
  • Bufo urunguensis Loveridge, 1932 : Urungu Toad
  • Bufo uzunguensis Loveridge, 1932 : Uzungwe Toad
  • Bufo valhallae Meade-Waldo, 1909 : Pulo Weh Toad
  • Bufo valliceps Wiegmann, 1833 : Gulf Coast Toad
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Bufo.woodhousii.jpg
Woodhouse's Toad (Bufo woodhousii)
  • Bufo variegatus (Günther, 1870) : Eden Harbour Toad, Patagonian Toad
  • Bufo vellardi Leviton and Duellman, 1978 : Alto Maranon Toad
  • Bufo veraguensis Schmidt, 1857 : Veragua Toad
  • Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, 1814) : Caucasus Toad
: Caucasian Toad
  • Bufo vertebralis Smith, 1848 : African Dwarf Toad, Pygmy Toad
  • Bufo villiersi Angel, 1940 : Villier's Toad
  • Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 : European Green Toad
  • Bufo vittatus Boulenger, 1906 : Banded Toad, Degen's Toad
  • Bufo wolongensis Herrmann and Kühnel, 1997
  • Bufo woodhousii Girard, 1854 : Woodhouse's Toad - The number of subspecies is still controversial.
    • Bufo woodhousii australis Shannon and Lowe, 1955 : Southwestern Woodhouse's Toad
    • Bufo woodhousii woodhousii Girard, 1854 : Rocky Mountain Toad
  • Bufo xeros Tandy, Tandy, Keith, and Duff-MacKay, 1976 : Subsaharan Toad, Waza Toad, Savannah Toad

Reference

  • Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World
  • Blair (ed.), 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo.

External link

fr:Bufo nl:Bufo

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