Classical logic

From Academic Kids

Classical logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. They are characterised by a number of properties; non-classical logics are those that lack one or more of these properties, which are:

  1. Law of the excluded middle;
  2. Law of noncontradiction;
  3. Monotonicity of entailment and Idempotency of entailment;
  4. Commutativity of conjunction;
  5. De Morgan duality: every logical operator is dual to another.

Examples of classical logics

  • Aristotle's Organon introduces his theory of syllogistic, which is a logic with a restricted form of judgements: assertions take one of four forms, All Ps are Q, Some Ps are Q, No Ps are Q, and Some Ps are not Q. These judgements find themselves if two pairs of two dual operators, and each operator is the negation of another, relationships that Aristotle summarised with his square of oppositions. Aristotle explicitly formulated the law of the excluded middle and law of noncontradiction in justifying his system, although these laws cannot be expressed as judgements within the syllogistic framework.

Non-classical logics

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