Condensation reaction

From Academic Kids

A condensation reaction (also known as a dehydration reaction or dehydration synthesis) is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties react and become covalently bonded to one another by the concurrent loss of a small molecule, usually water. It may be considered as the opposite of a hydrolysis reaction, ie, the cleavage of a chemical entity into two parts by the action of water.

Mechanism

Condensation reactions generally proceed in two steps:

  1. Nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl group
  2. Elimination reaction of the condensate

Applications

This type of reaction is used as a basis for the making of many important polymers for example: nylon, polyester and other condensation polymers and various epoxies. It is also the basis for the laboratory formation of silicates and polyphosphates. The reactions that form acid anhydrides from their constituent acids are typically condensation reactions. Other organic condensation reactions are Aldol condensations, self-condensation, the acyloin condensation and the benzoin condensation.

In biology, the formation of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate from precursers and inorganic phosphate are also condensation reactions.de:Kondensationsreaktion pl:Kondensacja (chemia)

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