Crown jewels

From Academic Kids

Crown jewels are those that belong to the sovereign and pass to the next sovereign to symbolize the right to rule. They usually include one or more crowns, scepters, orbs, swords, and/or rings. Please see also under regalia.

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Africa

Benin

The enormous collection of the Ahosu (Kings) of the Danhom (Dahomey) is kept in the city of Abomey. Since the 1980's, the Getty Foundation and UNESCO have been trying to save the old palaces. The royal palaces are today a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The royal insignia which symbolised the power of the king were the katakl (three-legged stool), the afokpa (sandals), the avotita (woven cloth decorated with appliqu work), the aw (parasol), the mankpo (recade or ceremonial staff), the so (gun) and the hwi (sabre). In the course of the war against the French colonial power, many items were looted. Most of the items can be seen either in Abomey, or the Muse de l'Homme in Paris.

Links:


The regalia of the Kingdom of Benin, which stretched for its most part into Nigeria, were the Benin bronzes, which were plundered by the British colonial powers in their war. Most of it is kept today in the British Museum, which refuses to return them to the successor states of Edo and Warri, Nigeria.

Links:

Burundi

The traditional emblem of the Mwami (king) was the Karyenda drum. These holy drums were kept at special drum-sanctuaries throughout the country and were brought out for special ceremonies only. One such place is in Gitega, location of the ibwami royal court.


Central African Republic

Please see Emperor Bokassa and the Central African Empire.


Egypt

  • Ancient Egypt

The treasures of the Pharaos can be seen in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and throughout other museums in the world.


  • Kingdom of Egypt

Most of the Crown Jewels of the Mehmet Ali Dynasty are at the Museum at Abdin Palace in Cairo.

Links:


Ethiopia

The crown jewels of Ethiopia are in Axum.


Ghana

The symbol of the royal power of the Asantehene (ruler of the Ashanti) is the sacred Golden Stool, the Sika 'dwa. It is used for the coronation and symbolizes the power of the Ashanti. It is kept alongside with other royal regalia at the Royal Palace in Kumasi.


Nigeria

Nigeria is a federal union. It therefore has a plethora of many monarchies and kingdoms, some which had a huge significance in the history of Nigeria, before they were subdued by the British during colonialism. Nevertheless, even today some rulers have been able to maintain their religious, cultural, and to some extent political powers. The regalia had often not only political significance, but also, in the southern kingdoms for example, were vital for religious rituals. In this case, the ruler was seen as a link between this earth, and the spiritual side. Also in the north did the muslim emirs and sultans have religious functions as commanders. Here is a small list of some of the kingdoms:

The royal regalia is normally kept in the capital city of the respective state. Please see also List of Nigerian traditional states.

Links:

Rwanda

Close to the old capital of Butare lies the nearby Nyabisindu, formerly known as Nyanza, the traditional seat of Rwandas monarchy. The Royal Palace at Nyanza, a domed construction made with traditional materials, has been restored to its 19th century state and is now maintained as a museum. Further historical artefacts are kept at the National Museum in Butare.

Links:


South Africa

see Zulu Kingdom


Tanzania


Uganda

Uganda is made up of various kingdoms. During the upheavals after gaining independence, the monarchies were abolished with much bloodshed. Only in the 1990's were the various kings restored to their thrones. Although they do not wield any political powers anymore, they are still a symbol of unity and continuance to their people. The royal regalia normally consisted of the Royal Drums, and are kept at the various palaces in the capital cities of the Ugandan states. Please see Ugandan Royal Regalia. Here is a list of the four kingdoms:

Links:


Asia

Burma

Main article: Burmese Royal Regalia

The treasures of Burmas Konbaung Dynasty are kept in the National Museum in Yangon. They include items such as the Sihasana Pallanka (Great Lion Throne), and various other items. Other items can be seen in the old capital city of Mandalay.

Brunei

Main article: Bruneian Royal Regalia

The royal regalia of Brunei are kept in the Royal Regalia Building, which was completed in 1992, in Bandar Seri Begawan. Also housed are the Royal Chariot, the gold and silver ceremonial armoury and the jewel-encrusted crowns.


India

The Imperial Crown of India is kept at the Tower of London.

See also articles on Moghul Empire and the Princely States


Indonesia

Indonesia has various kingdoms and sultanates, all with their own unique history. The most known royal courts are distributed amongst the islands of Java, Madura, Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Sumbawa. There are 23 royal courts or more which still exist today, headed either by a sultan or a ruler. Although today only HM the Sultan of Yogyakarta wields any political influence as the governor. In Indonesia the royal courts are either called kraton or istana. Below are some of them listend:

Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat and Puro Pakualaman;

Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat and Puro Mangkunegaraan;

Kraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon, Kraton Kanoman, and Kraton Kacirebonan;

Kraton Sumenep;

Istana Siak;

Istana Palembang Darussalam;

Istana Maimun of Kesultanan Deli;

Istana Amantubillah Mempawah, and Istana Alwatzkubillah;

Kutai of Tenggarong;

Istana Bima;

Istana Luwu;

Istana Walio of Buton Island;

Istana Saoraja of Bone and Istana Balla Lompoa of Gowa.

Various royal regalia and other items used for court functions may be viewed in some the respective palaces.

Links:

Iran (Persia)

Main article: Iranian Crown Jewels

Iran has a big collection of royal treasures dating from the Safavid dynasty, to Nader Shah, the Qajar dynasty, especially by Fath Ali Shah and Nasser-al-Din Shah, and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The Imperial Jewels are on display at the Central Bank in Tehran, Iran.

Links:


Japan

Main article: Imperial Regalia of Japan

The Imperial Regalia of Japan (Jp: 三種の神器; "Sanshu no Jingi", or "Three Sacred Treasures") consist of the Holy Sword Kusanagi (草薙剣), the Holy Jewel Yasakani no magatama (八尺瓊曲玉), and the Holy Mirror Yata no kagami (八咫鏡). The sword and the mirror are kept at the Shinto shrines in Nagoya and Ise in Central Japan, and the jewel at the Kokyo Imperial Palace in Tokyo. The enthronement cerenomy was traditionally held in Kyoto. The Imperial Throne is kept at the Gosho Imperial Palace in Kyoto.

Laos

Main article: Lao Royal Regalia

The regalia of Laos are kept in the Royal Palace in Luang Prabang.


Malaysia

Main article: Malay Royal Regalia

The royal regalia of Malaysia are kept in the Istana Negara (National Palace) in Kuala Lumpur. The regalia is worn by HM the King (ms: Yang di-Pertuan Agong), and HM the Queen (Raja Permaisuri Agong) during certain ceremonies, such as the election as head of state, HMs birthday, awards ceremonies, and the calling of parliament.

They consist of the Tengkolok Diraja (Royal Head Dress), the Queens Gendik di Raja ([[Royal Tiara), the Keris Panjang di Raja (Royal Long Kris or Keris of State), the Kris Pendek di Raja (Royal Short Keris), the Cogan Alam dan Cogan Agama (Sceptre of the Universe and Sceptre of Religion), the Cokmar (Maces), the Pedang Keris Panjang dan Sundang (Royal sword, long Keris and sword Keris), the Payung Ubur-ubur Kuming dan Tombak Berambu (Yellow-fringed umbrella and tassled lances), and the Pending di Raja (Royal Waist Buckle).

Malaysia is a federal state, consisting of 13 states and two federal territories. Out of these, 9 are monarchies headed by sultans. Royal regalia and other items of the rulers are kept in the respective palaces and courts. These are:

Philippines


Thailand (Siam)

Main article: Thai Royal Regalia

The Royal Regalia, Royal Utensils, and the Royal Eight Weapons of Sovereignty comprise a total of 28 items. The Royal Regalia consists of the Great Crown of Victory, the Sword of Victory, the Royal Staff, the Royal Fan (or Flywhisk), and the Royal Slippers. The 28 items are traditionally presented to the Kings of Thailand at their coronation ceremonies. They are kept, amongst other royal items, at the Grand Palace in Bangkok.

Links:


Vietnam

The signs of the imperial power of the Nguyen Emperors were the Great Imperial Seal and the Sword. When the last emperor Bao Dai abdicated 1945 in Hue, he handed them over to the communist authorities.


Europe

Austria (Austro-Hungarian Empire, Holy Roman Empire)

Missing image
Krone_Kaiser_Rudolf_II_Kaisertum_sterreich.jpg

The Austrian Crown Jewels (de: Insignien und Kleinodien) are kept at the Schatzkammer (Imperial Treasury) located in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna. They are a collection of imperial regalia and jewels dating from the 10th century to the 19th. They are one of the biggest and most important collection of royal objects still today, and reflect more than a thousand years of European history. The treasury can be quantified into six important parts:

The most outstanding objects are the insignia of the hereditary Empire of Austria. They consist of the Imperial Crown, the Imperial Orb and the mantle of the Austrian Empire, and the Coronation Robes of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. The Imperial Crown, Orb, Cross, and Holy Lance of the Holy Roman Empire are also highlights.

Czech Republic (Czech Kingdom, Bohemian Kingdom)

The jewels (cs: korunovačn klenoty), and the Crown of Saint Wenceslas of Bohemia (Svatovclavsk koruna) are kept in Prague Castle (Pražsk hrad) and are displayed to public only occasionally.

The crown is named and dedicated after the Duke and Patron Saint Wenceslas I of the Premyslids dynasty of Bohemia. The crown has an unusual design, with vertical 'fleurs-de-lis' standing at the front, back and sides. Made from gold and precious stones, its weight is 2.475 kg.

It was made for King Charles IV in 1346. Since 1867 it is definitely stored in St. Vitus Cathedral of Prague Castle. The jewels have always played an important role as a symbol of Bohemian statehood.

Links (all text in Czech language):

Denmark

The crown jewels and other royal regalia of Denmark are kept in Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen. Please see Danish Crown Regalia.


France

Main article: French Crown Jewels

What is left of the crown jewels of France are on display in the Louvre in Paris.

Missing image
French-crown-jewels.jpg


Germany

  • Anhalt
  • Baden
  • Bavaria (de: Bayern)

In 1806, Napoleon I Bonaparte conquered the Holy Roman Empire. He restructered the many german states and the Duchy of Bavaria was promoted to a 'Kingdom'. The ruling Wittelsbach Duke became Maximilian I became King of Bavaria. With his new status, the King ordered new regalia to be made. It can be seen today in the Treasury of the Residenz Palace in Munich.

The Bavarian Coronation Set consists of the Crown of Bavaria, the Crown of the Queen (originally made for Maximilian's Queen, Caroline Frederika of Baden, the State Sword, the Royal Orb, and the Royal Sceptre. Please see Bavarian Crown Jewels.

Links:


  • Hessia (Hessen)
  • Mecklenburg
  • Saxony (Sachsen)

The treasures of the Kings of Saxony are kept in Dresden. Please see Saxon Crown Jewels.

  • Thurn und Taxis
  • Prussia (Preuen)

The crown and the insignia of the Kingdom of Prussia are kept at Hohenzollern Castle in Sigmarigen, Baden-Wrttemberg. Please see Prussian Crown Jewels.

Links:


  • Wrttemberg
  • Holy Roman Empire

The Imperial Regalia like the Holy Crown of Charlemagne, the orb, the sceptre, the Holy Lance, and various other items are kept in the Schatzkammer Treasury in Vienna, Austria. Please see Imperial Regalia.

Links:

Greece

Main article: Greek Crown Jewels

  • Hellenic Kingdom


Hungary

Missing image
Saint_Stephen_Crown.jpg
St. Stephen Crown of Hungary

Main article: Crown of St. Stephen

The crown jewels of Hungary are on display in the Parliament Building in Budapest.


Ireland

Main article: Irish Crown Jewels

The jewels were kept at Dublin Castle.


Italy

  • Lombardy

the Iron Crown of the Kingdom of Lombardy is kept at the Cathedral of Monza. The coronation robe is kept in the Schatzkammer in Vienna, Austria.


Netherlands

Main article: Dutch Royal Regalia

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Norway

Main article: Norwegian Royal Regalia

The crown jewels, or royal regalia, of Norway are together with some other old treasures placed in Nidaros Cathedral, in Trondheim.


Poland

Main article: Polish Royal Regalia

Missing image
Szczerbiec.jpg
Hilt of Szczerbiec

Only survived original part of Polish Crown Jewels from times of Piast dynasty is ceremonial sword - Szczerbiec. It is currently on display along with other royal items in the Wawel Royal Castle Museum, Krakw.

One of many royal crowns was made for King August II, Elector of Saxony when he became elected as King of Poland in 1697. Since the original set was stolen, a new set was made for the coronation of in Krakw. Today it is displayed in the Royal Castle in Dresden, Germany.


Spain

The old regalia of Spain was destroyed in the Great Fire of Christmas Eve 1734. In the 19th century , King Alphonso ordered a new crown and sceptre to be made. They are displayed at accession ceremonies and at the opening of the Cortes (Parliament).

The crown is made of gold, and it features half-arches resting on 8 plates bearing the emblems of the Kingdom. They are kept today by the Patrimonio Nacional (the Crown Heritage).

Links:


Sweden

Swedens Crown Jewels are kept deep in the vaults of the Royal Treasury, underneath the Royal Palace in Stockholm. The symbols of Swedish monarchy are still in use for weddings, christenings, funerals, and the opening of the Riksdag (Parliament). Among the oldest priceless objects are the sword of Gustav Vasa and the crown, orb, sceptre and key of King Erik XIV and numerous other sovereigns. Please see Swedish Royal Regalia.

Links:


Portugal

The royal Crown of Portugal was made in 1817. It was created in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the workshop of Don Antonio Gomes da Silva, for King John VI. Today, the crown along with other royal regalia is kept in the Ajuda Palace, Lisbon.


Russia

Missing image
Anna's_crown.jpg

The coronation regalia, such as the Great Imperial Crown, the Imperial Orb of Catherine II the Great, the Imperial Sceptre with the Orlov diamond, the Shah diamond, and others are kept at the Kremlin Armory Museum in Moscow. Please see Imperial Crown of Russia.

Links:


United Kingdom

Main article: Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

Some of the English and British crown jewels being held by  They include the Imperial State Crown, the Sceptre with the Cross, and the Sovereign's Orb.
Enlarge
Some of the English and British crown jewels being held by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom They include the Imperial State Crown, the Sceptre with the Cross, and the Sovereign's Orb.
  • England

The crown jewels of England are kept in the Tower of London. Links:

  • Scotland

The "Honours of Scotland", are on display in Edinburgh Castle.

  • Wales

The "Honours of the Principality of Wales".


Vatican


Latin America

Argentina


Bolivia


Brazil

Brazilian Imperial Crown
Enlarge
Brazilian Imperial Crown

The Imperial Crown alongside with other regalia and mementos of the Brazilian Empire are kept at the Imperial Museum (Museu Imperial) in the former palace of Brazilian emperor Pedro II, in Petrpolis, Brazil.

Links:


Peru


Mexico

  • Aztec Empire

Regalia such as the feather-crowns of Emperor Moctezuma and other items such as thrones can be viewed in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City and other museums throughout the world.

  • Mexican Empire

The Museum at Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City has a fine collection of items belonging to Emperor Maximilian and Empress Carlota. Imperial crown jewels and regalia as such did not exist. Links:


See also

Template:Crowns


de:Britische Kronjuwelen eo:Kronjuveloj

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