Date of independence of European countries

From Academic Kids

This is a list of all present countries of Europe, sorted by their date of independence or creation.

Note: List is still incomplete and needs a proof-reading

Date of Independence Country Mode of creation and predecessors
301 San Marino S: Roman Empire
843 France D: Frankish Kingdom
848 Scotland M: Dalriada and the Pictish kingdom
9th century Bohemia M: Slavic tribes
9th century Ukraine as Kyivan Rus M: East slavic tribes
9th century Serbia as Rascia M: State of the Serbs
966 Poland M: State of the Polans and surrounding lands
10th century Denmark M
10th century Sweden M
10th century England M
1001 Hungary M: St. Stephen unifies country
1143 Portugal S: Kingdom of Leon
1278 Andorra S: France
1297 Monaco S: Genoa
13th century Russia
1512 Spain M: Castile and Aragon
1581 Netherlands S: Spain
1648 Switzerland S: Holy Roman Empire
1707 Kingdom of Great Britain M: England, Scotland
1801 United Kingdom M: Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland
1806 Austria-Hungary / Austria D: Holy Roman Empire
1806 Liechtenstein D: Holy Roman Empire
1806 Luxembourg D: Holy Roman Empire
1806 Prussia D: Holy Roman Empire
1817 Serbia S: Ottoman Empire
1828 Greece S: Ottoman Empire
1830 Belgium S: Netherlands
1861 Italy M: Modena and Reggio, Parma, Sardinia, Tuscany, Two Sicilies
1871 Germany M: German Confederation member countries except for Austria, Liechtenstein, Limburg, and Luxembourg
1878 Bulgaria S: Ottoman Empire
1878 Romania S: Ottoman Empire
1905 Norway S: Sweden
1912 Albania S: Ottoman Empire
1917 Finland S: Russia
1918 Yugoslavia S: Austria-Hungary; M: Serbia, Montenegro
1918 Czechoslovakia S: Austria-Hungary
1918 Hungary S: Austria-Hungary
1918 Austria S: Austria-Hungary
1918 Estonia S: Russia
1918 Iceland S: Denmark (until 1944 under Danish protectorate)
1918 Latvia S: Russia
1918 Lithuania S: Russia
1918 Poland S: Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia
1918 Georgia D: Russia
1918 Armenia D: Russia
1918 Ukraine D: Russia
1920 Republic of Ireland S: United Kingdom
1922 Soviet Union Russia
1929 Vatican State S: Italy
1944 Iceland S: Denmark
1949 Federal Republic of Germany S: Occupied Nazi Germany (reunified with East Germany through annexation in 1990)
1990 Lithuania S: Soviet Union
1990 Latvia S: Soviet Union
1990 Estonia S: Soviet Union
1991 Armenia D: Soviet Union
1991 Azerbaijan D: Soviet Union
1991 Belarus D: Soviet Union
1991 Croatia S: Yugoslavia
1991 FYR Macedonia S: Yugoslavia
1991 Georgia D: Soviet Union
1991 Moldova D: Soviet Union
1991 Ukraine D: Soviet Union
1991 Russia D: Soviet Union
1991 Slovenia S: Yugoslavia
1992 Bosnia-Hercegovina S: Yugoslavia
1993 Czech Republic D: Czechoslovakia
1993 Slovakia D: Czechoslovakia

Explanations

A country can come into existence either by splitting off from one existing country (marked by S in the table), or through the merging of several existing countries (M). A special case of a split-off is when a federal country dissolves by dividing up into its constituent states (D). The date of independence of a country is often arguable; independence cannot be defined precisely. Also, whether something is a newly founded country, or whether it is the same as a previously existing one, is often arguable. In general, if a new political entity has mostly the same area as one of its predecessors, it will be considered as the same country as the predecessor.

Times of temporary dependence may present problems. If the dependence on another country is short and the country survives it without major changes in its area and constitution, such as a period of occupation during a war, it will be ignored. Otherwise, the country will be considered a new creation.

This list presents an attempt to give a simple view of a certain aspect of European history. Oversimplifications are unavoidable.

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