From Academic Kids

Göbekli Tepe is an early Neolithic site in southeastern Turkey.

Contents

Location

The site is located 15 km northeast of Urfa on the top of a range of limestone-hills that forms the southeastern extension of the Taurus-mountains. The name means "hill with a navel". The tell (artificial settlement hill) is 15 m high and 300 m in diameter.

History of research

The site was discovered in 1963 during a survey. Since 1995, excavations have been conducted by the museum Urfa and the German archaeological institute (DAI ) Istanbul. The excavation is directed by Dr. Klaus Schmidt (university of Heidelberg). Scholars from the University of Karlsruhe are documenting the architectural remains.

Dating

The PPN A settlement has been dated to ca. 9000 BC. There are remains of smaller houses from the PPN B and some few epipalaeolithic finds as well. There are a number of radiocarbon dates:

Lab-Number Date BP Oriental
sigma
Context
Ua-19562896085enclosure B
Hd-20036955953Layer III
Hd-20025945273Layer III
Ua-19561843080enclosure C

Economy

While the settlement formally belongs to the earliest Neolithic (PPN A), up to now no traces of domesticated plants or animals have been found. The inhabitants were hunters and gatherers.

Architecture

The houses or temples are round megalithic buildings. The walls are made of unworked dry stone and include numerous T-shaped monolithic pillars of limestone that are up to 3 m high. Another, bigger pair of pillars is placed in the centre of the structure. The floors are made of terrazzo (burnt lime), and there is a low bench running along the whole of the exterior wall.

The reliefs on the pillars include foxes, lions, cattle, wild boars, herons, ducks, scorpions, ants and snakes. Some of the reliefs have been deliberately erased, maybe in preparation for new pictures. There are freestanding sculptures as well that may represent wild boars or foxes. As they are heavily crusted with lime, it is sometimes difficult to tell. Comparable statues have been discovered in Nevali Cori, Turkey and Nahal Hemar. The quarries for the statues are located on the plateau itself, some unfinished pillars have been found there in situ. The biggest unfinished pillar is still 6,9 m long, a length of 9m has been reconstructed. This is much larger than any of the finished pillars found so far. The stone was quarried with stone picks. Bowl-like depressions in the limestone-rocks have maybe been used as mortars in the epipalaeolithic already. There are some phalli and geometric patterns cut into the rock as well, their dating is uncertain.

Finds

The buildings are covered with settlement refuse that most have been brought from elsewhere. These deposits include flint tools like scarpers and arrowheads and animal bones. The lithic inventory is characterised by Byblos points and numerous Nemrik-points. There are Helwan-points and Aswad-points as well.

External links

Further reading

  • K. Schmidt, Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey. A preliminary Report on the 1995-1999 Excavations, Palčorient 26/1, 2001, 45-54.
  • K. Schmidt, Frühneolithische Tempel. Ein Forschungsbericht zum präkeramischen Neolithikum Obermesopotamiens. Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 130, 1998, 17-49.
  • K. Pustovoytov, Weathering rinds at exposed surfaces of limestone at Göbekli Tepe. Neo-lithics 2000, 24-26 (14C-Dates).de:Göbekli Tepe
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