Khalkha

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The Khalkha, or Halh (Халх) in modern Khalkha Mongolian, is a subgroup of the Mongols. They comprise the majority of the population of the independent state of Mongolia. The standard language of that country is based on their dialect.

Under Dayan Khan, the Khalkha was organized as one of three tümen of the Left Wing. Dayan Khan installed the fifth son Alchu Bolad and the eleventh son Geresenje on the Khalkha. The former became the founder of the Five Khalkha of Southern Mongolia and the latter became the founder of the Seven Khalkha of the Northern Mongolia. Mongolian chronicles called Geresenje as "Khong Tayiji of the Jalayir," which indicates that the core part of the Khalkha were descendants of the Jalayir tribe.

The Five Khalkha consisted of five tribes called Jarud, Baarin, Khunggirad, Bayaud and Öjiyed. They lived around the Shira Mören valley east of the Khingan Mountains, but were conquered by the Manchus. The Five Khalkha except for the Jarud and the Baarin were organized into the Eight Banners. Note that Khalkha Left Banner of Juu Uda League and Khalkha Right Banner of Ulaanchab League were offshoots of the Seven Khalkha.

The Seven Khalkha extended to central Mongolia, absorbing the Uriyangkhai, who rebelled after Dayan Khan's death. Geresenje's descendants formed the houses of Jasaghtu Khan, Tüshiyetü Khan and Chechen Khan. They preserved their independence until they sought help from the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty when they were expelled by the Jüün Ghar leader Galdan in 1688. In 1725 the Yongzheng Emperor gave Tsering independence from the house of Tüshiyetü Khan. It was the beginning of Sayin Noyan Aymagh.

The Khalkha led the Mongol independence movement in the 20th century. After enduring countless hardships, they established the independent state of Mongolia in northern Mongolia.is:Khalkha

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