Latin conjugation

From Academic Kids

fr:Conjugaison latine la:Coniugatio

Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from one basic form. It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, voice or other language-specific factors. When, for example, we use a verb to function as the action done by a subject, most languages require conjugating the verb to reflect that meaning. (For more information on conjugation in general, see the article on grammatical conjugation.)

In Latin, there are four main patterns of conjugation composed of groups of verbs that are conjugated following similar patterns. As in other languages, Latin verbs have a passive voice and an active voice. Furthermore, there exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning).

In a dictionary, Latin verbs are always listed with four principal parts which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:

Contents

Latin tenses and moods

Latin has the following tenses and moods:

  • Active voice
    • Indicative: present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect (past perfect), future perfect
    • Subjunctive: present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect
    • Infinitive: present, perfect, future
    • Imperative: present, future
    • Participle: present, future
    • Gerund
    • Supine (perfect participle)
  • Passive voice
    • Indicative: present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect
    • Subjunctive: present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect
    • Infinitive: present, perfect, future
    • Imperative: present
    • Participle: perfect
    • Verbal adjective

Deponent and semi-deponent verbs

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect tenses of ordinary passives are formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine.

Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerundive, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive.

Semideponent verbs form their imperfect tenses (present, imperfect, and future) in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect tenses are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus semideponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle.

Principal parts for the active voice

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel a and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present infinitive.

  • The principal parts of a first-conjugation verb follows the pattern: amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum (to love)

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel e and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present infinitive.

  • The principal parts of a second-conjugation verb follows the pattern: dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētum (to destroy)

The third conjugation consists of two sub-forms sometimes referred to as the third normal (or e stem) and third special (or i stem) forms. In the normal form the first person present indicative ends in . In the special or i stem form, the first person indicative ends in -iō. In both cases the present infinitive ends in -ere.

  • The principal parts of a normal third-conjugation verb follows the pattern: legō, legere, lēgī, lēctum (to read)
  • The principal parts of a special third-conjugation verb follows the pattern: capiō, capere, cēpī, captum (to capture)

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel i and can be recognized by the -īre ending of the present infinitive.

  • The principal parts of a fourth-conjugation verb follows the pattern: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum (to hear)

There are also some verbs that are irregular and do not fall into one of the four categories. Some examples include:

  • sum, esse, fuī, -- (to be) and its compound forms
  • eō, īre, iī (ivī), itum (to go) and its compound forms
  • volō, velle, voluī, -- (to want)
  • nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, -- (to not want)
  • mālō, mālle, māluī, -- (to prefer)
  • ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum (to carry or wear)

Some verbs that fall under one of the four categories may follow its method of conjugation but not necessarily have the same progression of principal parts. This is especially true in the third conjugation, where there is no general pattern for the third and fourth principal parts of the verb. For example, the verb occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsum (to kill) is third conjugation but has principal parts that are different from that of legō.

Conjugation radicals

The present infinitive radical is derived by dropping the -are, -ere, or -ire from the present infinitive.

The perfect indicative radical is derived by dropping the -i from the first-person singular perfect indicative:

  • amavi: amav-
  • delevi: delev-
  • legi: leg-

The supine radical is derived by dropping the -um from the supine:

  • amatum: amat-

Conjugation tables

For the most part, the four principal parts of a verb are sufficient information to form all other conjugations of the verb. The tables below show the conjugations of verbs in all four declensions and several irregular verbs.

First conjugation (-are): amo, amare, amavi, amatum (to love)

Active voice


Indicative
Present Imperfect Future Perfect Pluperfect Future anterior
ego amo amabam amabo amavi amaveram amavero
tu amas amabas amabis amavisti amaveras amaveris
is amat amabat amabit amavit amavit amaverat
ei amant amabant amabunt amaverunt amaverant amaverint
nos amamus amabamus amabimus amavimus amaveramus amaverimus
vos amatis amabatis amabitis amavistis amaveratis amaveritis


Subjunctive
Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect
ego amem amarem amaverim amavissem
tu ames amares amaveris amavisses
is amet amaret amaverit amavisset
nos amemus amaremus amaverimus amavissemus
vos ametis amaretis amaveritis amavessetis
ei ament amarent amaverint amavissent


Imperative
Present Future
tu ama amato
is amator
vos amate amatote
ei amantor


  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: amare
    • Perfect infinitive: amavisse
    • Future infinitive: amaturus esse
    • Present participle: amans
    • Future participle: amaturus
    • Gerund: amandum (acc.), amando (abl.), amando (dat.), amandi (gen.)
    • Supine: amatum (acc.), amatu (abl.)

Passive voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: amari
    • Perfect infinitive: amatus esse
    • Future infinitive: amatum iri
    • Perfect participle: amatus (-a, -um)
    • Verbal adjective: amandus
    • Particle: amatus (-a, -um), amati (-ae, a)
  • Indicative
    • Present: amor, amaris, amatur, amamur, amamini, amantur
    • Imperfect: amabar, amabaris, amabatur, amabamur, amabamini, amabantur
    • Future: amabor, amaberis, amabitur, amabimur, amabimini, amabuntur
  • Subjunctive
    • Present: amer, ameris, ametur, amemur, amemini, amentur
    • Imperfect: amarer, amareris, amaretur, amaremur, amaremini, amarentur
  • Imperative
    • amare, amamini

Pattern

  • Active non-finite forms
    • Present participle: Present radical + -ans
    • Future participle: Supine radical + -urus
    • Gerund: Present radical +: -andum, -ando, -ando, -andi
    • Supine: Supine radical +: -um, -u
  • Active indicative
    • Present: Present radical +: -o, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant
    • Imperfect: Present radical + -ab- +: -am, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant
    • Future: Present radical + -ab- +: -o, -is, -it, -imus, -itis, -unt
  • Active subjunctive
    • Present: Present radical +: -em, -es, -et, -emus, -etis, -ent
  • Active imperative
    • Present: Present radical +: -a, -ate
    • Future: Present radical +: -ato, -ato, -atoto, -anto
  • Passive non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: Present radical + -ari
    • Perfect infinitive: Supine radical + -us esse
    • Future infinitive: Supine radical + -um iri
    • Perfect participle: Supine radical + -us
    • Verbal adjective: Present radical + -andus
    • Particle: Supine radical +: -us, -i
  • Passive indicative
    • Present: Present radical +: -or, -aris, -atur, -amur, -amini, -antur
    • Imperfect: Present radical + -ab- +: -ar, -aris, -atur, -amur, -amini, -antur
    • Future: Present radical + -ab- +: -or, -eris, -itur, -imur, -imini, -untur
  • Passive subjunctive
    • Present: Present radical +: -er, -eris, -etur, -emur, -emini, -entur
    • Imperfect: Present infinitive +: -r, -ris, -tur, -mur, -mini, -ntur
  • Passive imperative
    • Present radical +: -are, -amini

Second conjugation (-eo, -ere): deleo, delere, delevi, deletum (to destroy)

Active voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: dēlēre
    • Perfect infinitive: dēlēvisse
    • Future infinitive: dēlētum (-a, -um) esse
    • Present participle: dēlēns, (-tis)
    • Future participle: dēlēturus (-a, -um)
    • Perfect participle: no active
    • Gerund: dēlendus (acc.), dēlendo (abl.), dēlendo (dat.), dēlendi(gen.)
    • Supine: dēletum (acc.), dēletu (abl.)
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: dēlēo, dēlēs, dēlet, dēlēmus, dēlētis, delent
    • Imperfect: dēlēbam, dēlēbas, dēlēbat, dēlēbamus, dēlēbatis, dēlēbant
    • Future: dēlēbo, dēlēbis, dēlēbit, dēlēbimus, dēlēbitis, dēlēbunt
    • Perfect: dēlēvī, dēlēvisti, dēlēvit, dēlēvimus, dēlēvistis, dēlēvērunt
    • Pluperfect: dēlēveram, dēlēveras, dēlēverat, dēlēverāmus, dēlēverātis, dēlēverant
    • Future Perfect: dēlēverō, dēlēveris, dēlēverit, dēlēverimus, dēlēveritis, dēlēverint
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: dēlēas, dēleās, dēleat, dēleāmus, dēleātis, dēleant
    • Imperfect: dēlērem, dēlērēs, dēlēret, dēlērēmus, dēlērētis, dēlērent
    • Perfect: dēlēverim, dēlēveris, dēlēverit, dēlēverimus, dēlēveritis, dēlēverint
    • Pluperfect: dēlēvissem, dēlēvissēs, dēlēvisset, dēlēvissēmus, dēlēvissētis, dēlēvissent
  • Imperative
    • Present: dēlē, dēlēte
    • Perfect: dēlēvisse
    • Future: dēlēturus (-a, -um) esse

Passive voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: dēlērī
    • Perfect infinitive: dēlētus (-a, -um) esse
    • Future infinitive: no passive
    • Present participle: no passive
    • Perfect: dēlētus (-a, -um)
    • Future participle: dēlendus (-a, -um)
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: dēlēor, dēlēris, dēletur, dēlēmur, dēlēmini, delentur
    • Imperfect: dēlēbar, dēlēbāris, dēlēbātur, dēlēbāmur, dēlēbāmini, dēlēbantur
    • Future: dēlēbor, dēlēberis, dēlēbitur, dēlēbimur, dēlēbiminī, dēlēbuntur
    • Perfect: dēlētus sum, dēlētus es, dēlētus est, dēlētī sumus, dēlētī estis, dēlētī sunt
    • Pluperfect: dēlētus eram, dēlētus eras, dēlētus erat, dēlētī eramus, dēlētī eratis, dēlētī erant
    • Future Perfect: dēlētus ero, dēlētus eris, dēlētus erit, dēlētī erimus, dēlētī eritis, dēlētī erunt
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: dēlēar, dēleāris, dēleātur, dēleāmur, dēleāminī, dēleantur
    • Imperfect: dēlērer, dēlērēris, dēlērētur, dēlērēmur, dēlērēmini, dēlērentur
    • Perfect: dēlētus sim, dēlētus sis, dēlētus sit, dēlētī simus, dēlētī sitis, dēlētīsint
    • Pluperfect: dēlētus essem, dēlētus esses, dēlētus esset, dēlētī essemus, dēlētī essetis, dēlētī essent
  • Imperative: no passive

Pattern

Third conjugation (-o, -ere): lego, legere, legi, lectum (to read)

Active Voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: legere
    • Perfect infinitive: lēgisse
    • Future infinitive: lēctum (-a, -um) esse
    • Present participle: lēgens, (-tis)
    • Perfect participle: no active
    • Future participle: lēcturus (-a, -um)
    • Gerund: legendus (acc.), legendō (abl.), legendō (dat.), legendī (gen.)
    • Supine: lēctum (acc.), lēctu (abl.)
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: legō, legis, legit, legimus, legitis, legunt
    • Imperfect: legēbam, legēbās, legēbat, legēbāmus, legēbātis, legēbant
    • Future: legam, legēs, leget, legēmus, legētis, legēnt
    • Perfect: lēgi, lēgisti, lēgit, lēgimus, lēgistis, lēgerunt
    • Pluperfect: lēgeram, lēgerās, lēgerat, lēgerāmus, lēgerātis, lēgerant
    • Future Perfect: lēgerō, lēgeris, lēgerit, lēgerimus, lēgeritis, lēgerint
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: legam, legās, legat, legāmus, legātis, legant
    • Imperfect: legerem, legerēs, legeret, legēremus, legēretis, legent
    • Perfect: lēgerim, lēgeris, lēgerit, lēgerimus, lēgeritis, lēgerint
    • Pluperfect: lēgissem, lēgissēs, lēgissset, lēgissēmus, lēgeissētis, lēgissnt
  • Imperative
    • Present: lege, legite

Passive voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: legī
    • Perfect infinitive: lēctus (-a, -um) esse
    • Future infinitive: no passive
    • Present participle: no passive
    • Perfect participle: lēctus (-a, -um)
    • Future participle: legendus (-a, -um)
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: legor, legeris, legitur, legimur, legimini, leguntur
    • Imperfect: legebar, legēbāris, legēbātur, legēbāmur, legēbāmini, legēbantur
    • Perfect: lēctus sum, lēctus es, lēctus est, lēcti sumus, lēcti estis, lēcti sunt
    • Pluperfect: lēctus eram, lēctus eras, lēcti erat, lēcti eramus, lēctus eratis, lēctus erant
    • Future Perfect: lēctus ero, lēctus eris, lēcti erit, lēcti erimus, lēctus eritis, lēctus erunt
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: legar, legāris, legatur, legāmur, legāmini, legantur
    • Imperfect: legerer, legrerēris, legerētur, legerēmur, legerēmini, legerentur
    • Perfect: lēctus sim, lēctus sis, lēctus sit, lēctus simus, lēctus sitis, lēctus sint
    • Pluperfect: lēctus essem, lēctus essēs, lēctus esset, lēctus essēmus, lēctus essētis, lēctus essent
  • Imperative: no passive

Third conjugation (-io, -ere): facio, facere, feci, factum (to make, do)

Active voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: facere
    • Perfect infinitive: fecisse
    • Future infinitive: facturum (-a, -um) esse
    • Present participle: faciens, (-tis)
    • Perfect participle: no active
    • Future participle: facturus (-a, -um)
    • Gerund: faciendum (acc.), faciendo (abl.), faciendo (dat.), faciendi (gen.)
    • Supine: factum (acc.), factu (abl.)
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: facio, facis, facit, facimus, facitis, faciunt
    • Imperfect: faciebam, faciebas, faciebat, faciebamus, faciebatis, faciebant
    • Future: faciam, facies, faciet, faciemus, facietis, facient
    • Perfect: feci, fecisti, fecit, fecimus, fecistis, fecerunt
    • Pluperfect: feceram, feceras, fecerat, feceramus, feceratis, fecerant
    • Future Perfect: fecero, feceris, fecerit, fecerimus, feceretis, fecerint
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: faciam, facias, faciat, faciamus, faciatis, faciant
    • Imperfect: facerem, faceres, faceret, faceremus, faceretis, facerent
    • Perfect: fecerim, feceris, fecerit, fecerimus, feceritis, fecerint
    • Pluperfect: fecissem, fecisses, fecisset, fecissemus, fecissetis, fecissent
  • Imperative
    • Present: fac, facite
    • Perfect: fecisse
    • Future: facturus (-a, -um) esse

Passive voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: faceri
    • Perfect infinitive: factus (-a, -um) esse
    • Future infinitive: no passive
    • Present participle: no passive
    • Perfect participle: factus (-a, -um)
    • Future participle: faciendus (-a, -um)
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: fio, fis, fit, fimus, fitis, fiunt
    • Imperfect: fiebam, fiebas, fiebat, fiebamus, fiebatis, fiebant
    • Future: fiam, fied, fiet, fiemus, fietis, fient
    • Perfect: factum sum, factum es, factum est, factum sumus, factum estis, factum sunt
    • Pluperfect: factum eram, factum eras, factum erat, factum eramus, factum eratis, factum erant
    • Future Perfect: factum ero, factum eris, factum erit, factum erimus, factum eritis, factum erint
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: fiam, fias, fiat, fiamus, fiatis, fiant
    • Imperfect: fierem, fieres, fieret, fieremus, fieretis, fierent
    • Perfect: factum sim, factum sis, factum sit, factum simus, factum sitis, factum sint
    • Pluperfect: factum essem, factum esses, factum esset, factum essemus, factum essetis, factum essent

Fourth conjugation (-io, -īre): audio, audīre, audīvī, auditum (to hear)

Active Voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: audīre
    • Perfect infinitive: audivisse
    • Future infinitive: auditurus (-a, -um) esse
    • Present particible: audiens (audientis)
    • Future particible: auditurus (-a, -um)
  • Indicatave Mood
    • Present: audio, audīs, audit, audīmus, audītis, audiunt
    • Imperfect: audiebam, audiebas, audeibat, audiebamus, audiebatis, audiebant
    • Future: audiam, audies, audiet, audiemus, audietis, audient
    • Perfect: audīvī, audīvis, audīvit, audīvīmus, audīvītis, audīverunt
    • Pluperfect: audīveram, audīveras, audīverat, audīveramus, audīveratis, audīverant
    • Future perfect: audīvero, audīveris, audīverit, audīverimus, audīverint
  • Subjenctive Mood
    • Present: audiam, audias, audiat, audiamus, audiatis, audiant
    • Imperfect: audīrem, audīres, audīret, audīremus, audīretis, audīrent
    • Perfect: audīverim, audīveris, audīverit, audīverimus, audīverint
    • Pluperfect: audīvissem, audīvisses, audīvisset, audīvissēmus, audīvissētis, audīvissent
  • Imperative Mood
    • Present: audī, audīte

Passive Voice

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: audīrī
    • Perfect infinitive: audītus (-a, -um) esse
    • Future infinitve: no passive
    • Present particible: no passive
    • Perfect particible: audītus (-a, -um)
    • Future paticible: ???
  • Indicative Mood
    • Present: audior, audiris, auditur, audimur, audimini, audiuntur
    • Imperfect: audiebar, audiebaris, audiebatur, audiebamur, audiebamini, audiebantur
    • Future: audiar, audieris, audiet, audiemur, audiemini, audientur
    • Perfect: auditum sum, auditum es, auditum est, audita sumus, audita estis, audita sunt
    • Pluperfect: auditum eram, auditum eras, auditum erat, audita ermus, audita eratis, audita erant
    • Future Perfect: auditum ero, auditum eris, auditum erit, audita erimus, audita eritis, audita erint
  • Subjunctive Mood
    • Present: audiar, audiaris, audiatur, audiamur, audiamini, audiantur
    • Imperfect: audīrer, audīreris, audīretur, audīremini, audīrentur
    • Perfect: auditum sim, auditum sis, auditum sit, audita simus, audita sitis, audita sint
    • Pluperfect: auditum essem, auditum esses, auditum esset, audita essemus, audita essetis, audita essent

Irregular verbs

sum, esse, fui (to be)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: esse
    • Perfect infinitive: fuisse
    • Future infinitive: futurus esse, fore
    • Present participle: ens
    • Future participle: futurus
  • Indicative
    • Present: sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt
    • Imperfect: eram, eras, erat, eramus, eratis, erant
    • Future: ero, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunt
    • Perfect: fui, fuisti, fuit, fuimus, fuistis, fuerunt
    • Pluperfect: fueram, fueras, fuerat, fueramus, fueratis, fuerant
    • Future anterior: fuero, fueris, fuerit, fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint
  • Subjunctive (conjunctive)
    • Present: sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint
    • Imperfect 1: essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent
    • Imperfect 2: forem, fores, foret, foremus, foretis, forent
    • Perfect: fuerim, fueris, fuerit, fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint
    • Pluperfect: fuissem, fuisses, fuisset, fuissemus, fuissetis, fuissent
  • Imperative
    • Present: es, este
    • Future: esto, esto, estote, sunto

eo, ire, ii (ivi), itum (to go)

Present - eo is it imus itis eunt

Perfect - ii isti iit iimus iistis ierunt

Imperfect - ebam ebas ebat ebamus ebatis ebant

Pluperfect - ieram ieras ierat ieramus ieratis ierant

volo, velle, volui (to want)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: velle
    • Perfect infinitive: voluisse
    • Present participle: volens
  • Indicative
    • Present: volo, vis, vult, volumus, vultis, volunt
    • Imperfect: volbam, volbas, volbat, volbamus, volbatis, volbant
    • Future: volam, voles, volet, volemus, voletis, volent
    • Perfect: volui, voluisti, voluit, voluimus, voluistis, voluerunt
    • Pluperfect: volueram, volueras, voluerat, volueramus, volueratis, voluerant
    • Future anterior: voluero, volueris, voluerit, voluerimus, volueritis, voluerint
  • Subjunctive (conjunctive)
    • Present: velim, velis, velit, velimus, velitis, velint
    • Imperfect: vellem, velles, vellet, vellemus, velletis, vellent
    • Perfect: voluerim, volueris, voluerit, voluerimus, volueritis, voluerint
    • Pluperfect: voluissem, voluisses, voluisset, voluissemus, voluissetis, voluissent

nolo, nolle, nolui (to not want)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: nolle
    • Perfect infinitive: noluisse
    • Present participle: nolens
  • Indicative
    • Present: nolo, non vis, non vult, nolumus, non vultis, nolunt
    • Imperfect: nolbam, nolbas, nolbat, nolbamus, nolbatis, nolbant
    • Future: nolam, noles, nolet, nolemus, noletis, nolent
    • Perfect: nolui, noluisti, noluit, noluimus, noluistis, noluerunt
    • Pluperfect: nolueram, nolueras, noluerat, nolueramus, nolueratis, noluerant
    • Future anterior: noluero, nolueris, noluerit, noluerimus, nolueritis, noluerint
  • Subjunctive (conjunctive)
    • Present: nolim, nolis, nolit, nolimus, nolitis, nolint
    • Imperfect: nollem, nolles, nollet, nollemus, nolletis, nollent
    • Perfect: noluerim, nolueris, noluerit, noluerimus, nolueritis, noluerint
    • Pluperfect: noluissem, noluisses, noluisset, noluissemus, noluissetis, noluissent
  • Imperative
    • Present: noli, nolite
    • Future: nolito, nolito, nolitote, nolunto

malo, malle, malui (to prefer)

  • Non-finite forms
    • Present infinitive: malle
    • Perfect infinitive: maluisse
    • Perfect participle: malens
  • Indicative
    • Present: malo, mavis, mavult, malumus, mavultis, malunt
    • Imperfect: malbam, malbas, malbat, malbamus, malbatis, malbant
    • Future: malam, males, malet, malemus, maletis, malent
    • Perfect: malui, maluisti, maluit, maluimus, maluistis, maluerunt
    • Pluperfect: malueram, malueras, maluerat, malueramus, malueratis, maluerant
    • Future anterior: maluero, malueris, maluerit, maluerimus, malueritis, maluerint
  • Subjunctive (conjunctive)
    • Present: malim, malis, malit, malimus, malitis, malint
    • Imperfect: mallem, malles, mallet, mallemus, malletis, mallent
    • Perfect: maluerim, malueris, maluerit, maluerimus, malueritis, maluerint
    • Pluperfect: maluissem, maluisses, maluisset, maluissemus, maluissetis, maluissent

fero, ferre, tuli, latum (to carry, wear)

Syncopated Forms


Patterns and Similarities

Notice that in all forms the endings are similar, 'o' or 'm' endings mean I. 's' means 'you' (in the pronouns 'suus' means 'his'; do not get confused) and the 't' endings mean he/she/it.

So:

Singular
  1. -o/m = I, eg. sum or verbo
  2. -s = You, eg. es or amas
  3. -t = He, eg est or amat
Plural (note the simularities with the singular)
  1. -mus
  2. -tis
  3. -nt

A few elements of conjugation, often similar to Latin conjugation, survive in English and can serve as helpful mnemonics. 'am' (I am) retains the nasal 'mmm' sound inherited from its ancestors (note: me). 'is' is remarkably similar to the Latin 'est'. Such similarities are a result of English and Latin's common descent from Indo-European.

Derivations for all verbs

  • Non-finite forms
    • Perfect infinitive: Perfect radical + -isse
    • Future infinitive: Future participle + esse
  • Active indicative
    • Perfect: Perfect radical +: -i, -isti, -it, -imus, -istis, -erunt
    • Pluperfect: Perfect radical +: -eram, -eras, -erat, -eramus, -eratis, -erant
    • Future anterior: Perfect radical +: -ero, -eris, -erit, -erimus, -eritis, -erint
  • Active subjunctive
    • Inflection: -m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
    • Imperfect: Present infinitive + subjunctive inflection
    • Perfect: Perfect radical + -eri- + subjunctive inflection
    • Pluperfect: Perfect radical + -isse- + subjunctive inflection
  • Passive voice
    • Passive particle: Supine radical +: -us, -i

See also

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