List of brightest stars

From Academic Kids

Contents


By apparent magnitude

Below the 100 Brightest stars as seen from Earth (by apparent magnitude at visible wavelengths) according to the Hipparcos sky survey. The exact order of this list is not completely well defined:

  • Double stars here are sometimes treated individually, while other lists may combine their brightness.
  • Statistical variations in measured values.
  • Some stars are actually variable stars and are indicated with var.



  Magnitude Bayer Designation Proper name distance (ly)
0 −26.73   The Sun 0.000 016
1 −1.44 α CMa Sirius 8.61
2 −0.62 α Car Canopus 312.73
3 −0.05 var α Boo Arcturus 36.69
4 −0.01 α1 Cen Alpha Centauri-A 4.40
5 0.03 α Lyr Vega 25.31
6 0.08 α Aur Capella 42.21
7 0.18 β Ori Rigel 772.91
8 0.4 α Cmi Procyon 11.42
9 0.45 α Eri Achernar 143.81
10 0.45 var α Ori Betelgeuse 427.47
11 0.61 β Cen Hadar 525.22
12 0.76 α Aql Altair 16.76
13 0.77 α Cru Acrux 320.72
14 0.87 var α Tau Aldebaran 65.10
15 0.98 α Vir Spica 262.20
16 1.06 α Sco Antares 604.02
17 1.16 β Gem Pollux 33.73
18 1.17 α PsA Fomalhaut 25.08
19 1.25 β Cru Becrux 352.62
20 1.25 α Cyg Deneb 3229.35
21 1.35 α2 Cen Alpha Centauri-B 4.40
22 1.36 α Leo Regulus 77.50
23 1.5 ε CMa Adhara 430.86
24 1.58 α Gem Castor 51.57
25 1.59 γ Cru Gacrux 87.93
26 1.62 λ Sco Shaula 702.95
27 1.64 γ Ori Bellatrix 243.06
28 1.65 β Tau El Nath 131.05
29 1.67 β Car Miaplacidus 111.16
30 1.69 ε Ori Alnilam 1342.23
31 1.73 α Gru Al Na'ir 101.40
32 1.74 ζ Ori Alnitak 817.46
33 1.75 γ Vel Al Suhail 840.62
34 1.76 ε UMa Alioth 80.92
35 1.79 γ Peg Algenib 591.95
36 1.79 ε Sgr Kaus Australis 144.65
37 1.81 α UMa Dubhe 123.65
38 1.83 δ CMa Wezen 1792.11
39 1.85 η UMa Alkaid 100.69
40 1.86 ε Car Avior 632.11
41 1.86 θ Sco Sargas 272.02
42 1.9 β Aur Menkalinan 82.13
43 1.91 α TrA Atria 415.50
44 1.93 γ Gem Alhena 104.80
45 1.93 δ Vel Delta Velorum 79.75
46 1.94 α Pav Peacock 183.24
47 1.97 var α UMi Polaris 431.45
48 1.98 β CMa Murzim 499.49
49 1.99 α Hya Alphard 177.27
50 2.01 α Ari Hamal 65.92
51 2.01 γ Leo Algieba 125.64
52 2.04 β Cet Deneb Kaitos 95.83
53 2.05 σ Sgr Nunki 224.34
54 2.06 θ Cen Menkent 60.93
55 2.07 α And Alpheratz 97.07
56 2.07 κ Ori Saiph 2104.28
57 2.07 β And Mirach 199.35
58 2.07 β UMi Kochab 126.45
59 2.07 β Gru Beta Gruis 170.13
60 2.08 α Oph Ras Alhague 46.71
61 2.09 var β Per Algol 92.83
62 2.1 γ And Alamach 354.90
63 2.14 β Leo Denebola 36.17
64 2.15 γ Cas Gamma Cassiopeiae 613.09
65 2.2 γ Cen Gamma Centauri 130.40
66 2.21 ζ Pup Naos 1399.83
67 2.21 ι Car Aspidiske 692.48
68 2.22 α CrB Gemma 74.72
69 2.23 λ Vel Lambda Velorum 573.23
70 2.23 ζ UMa Mizar 78.15
71 2.23 γ Cyg Sadr 1524.13
72 2.24 α Cas Schedar 228.58
73 2.24 γ Dra Eltanin 147.59
74 2.25 δ Ori Mintaka 916.19
75 2.28 β Cas Caph 54.47
76 2.29 ε Cen Epsilon Centauri 375.77
77 2.29 δ Sco Dschubba 401.67
78 2.29 ε Sco Wei 65.43
79 2.3 α Lup Alpha Lupi 548.18
80 2.33 η Cen Eta Centauri 308.58
81 2.34 β UMa Merak 79.42
82 2.35 ε Boo Izar 209.76
83 2.38 ε Peg Enif 672.52
84 2.39 κ Sco Girtab 463.97
85 2.4 α Phe Ankaa 77.43
86 2.41 γ UMa Phecda 83.66
87 2.43 η Oph Sabik 84.12
88 2.44 β Peg Scheat 199.25
89 2.45 α Cep Alderamin 48.79
90 2.45 η CMa Aludra 3197.68
91 2.47 κ Vel Kappa Velorum 539.12
92 2.48 ε Cyg Gienah 72.05
93 2.49 α Peg Markab 139.63
94 2.54 α Cet Menkar 220.10
95 2.54 ζ Oph Zeta Ophiuchi 458.10
96 2.55 ζ Cen Zeta Centauri 384.61
97 2.56 δ Leo Zosma 57.70
98 2.56 β Sco Acrab 530.34
99 2.58 α Lep Arneb 1284.11
100 2.58 δ Cen Delta Centauri 395.34

By absolute magnitude

Below is a list of the most luminous stars by absolute magnitude. The absolute magnitude is a measure of the star's luminosity – the total amount of visible energy radiated by a star every second, as it would be at a standard distance of 10 parsecs away from the star itself). The exact order of this list is not yet complete, nor is it completely well defined:

  • Double stars here are sometimes treated individually, while other lists may combine their brightness.
  • Statistical variations in measured values.
  • Some stars are actually variable stars.



Star name Apparent Magnitude Absolute Magnitude Luminosity in Solar Units

Sun (as reference)

-26.8

4.8

1

LBV 1806-20

40,000,000

The Pistol Star

-13.2

6,000,000

Cyg OB2-12

-12.2

HD 93129A

-12.1

Eta Carinae

3,9 to 10,5

-12.1

4,000,000

QPM-241

-11.9

HDE 319718

-11.8

Rho Cassiopeiae

4.4

-9.6

550,000

Deneb

1.25

-8.73

135,000

Rigel

0.12

-8.1

100,000

Aludra

2.45

-7.51

85,000

Betelgeuse

0.41

-7.2

80,000

Wezen (Delta Canis Majoris)

1.83

-6.87

50,000

Omicron Canis Majoris

3.02

-6.46

Alnilam

1.69

-6.38

23,000

Sadr

2.23

-6.12

Naos

2.21

-5.95

Almaaz

3.03

-5.95

Iota Scorpii

2.99

-5.71

Eta Leonis

3.48

-5.60

Upsilon Carinae

2.92

-5.56

Canopus

-0.62

-5.53

Hadar (Beta Centauri)

0.61

-5.42

Arneb

2.58

-5.40

Phi Velorum

3.52

-5.34

Regor

1.75

-5.31

Hatysa (Iota Orionis)

2.75

-5.30

Antares

0.92

-5.28

10,700

Alnitak

1.74

-5.26

10,500

Beta Crucis

1.25

-5.2

10,000

Shaula

1.62

-5.05

Mintaka (Delta Orionis)

2.25

-4.99

Pi Puppis

2.71

-4.92

Adhara

1.50

-4.8

Xi Puppis

3.34

-4.74

Becrux

1.20

-4.7

Saiph

2.07

-4.65

Acrux

0.76

-4.6

3960

Avior (Epsilon Carinae)

1.86

-4.58

Spica

1.00

-3.55

2180

Shaula

1.60

-3.5

2100

Achernar

0.46

-1.3

910

Gacrux

1.63

-1.2

Aldebaran

0.85

-0.63

149

Regulus

1.35

-0.52

134.2

Arcturus

-0.04

-0.31

114

Capella

0.08

0.4

76

Castor

1.98

0.5

58

Vega

0.00

0.58

50.1

Pollux

1.14

0.7

30.5

Sirius

-1.46

1.4

23

Other objects

One might note that even the brightest star, at a luminosity of 40 million suns, it is still not the brightest object in the universe.
This honor belongs to a several hundred Quasars that are currently known to us.
The currently brightest known quasar is the ultraluminous 3C 273 in the constellation of Virgo. It has an average apparent magnitude of 12.8 (when observing with a telescope), but it has an an absolute magnitude of -26.7!
So from a distance of 10 parsecs, this object would shine brighter than our sun (4.8m)! This quasar's luminosity is, therefore, about 2 trillion (10^12) times that of our sun, or about 100 times that of the total light of average giant galaxies like our Milky Way!
Quasars however, are also found to vary in luminosity in differing time periods.


In terms of gamma rays, a Magnetar (type of neutron star) called SGR 1806-20, had a extreme burst on 27 December 2004.
In fact, it was the brightest event known to have impacted this planet from an origin outside our solar system.
If these gamma rays would be visible, with an absolute magnitude of approx. −29, it would be brighter than our sun (as measured by the Swift spacecraft).

The Gamma-ray burst GRB 971214 in 1998 has been found to be most energetic event in the universe. It had the equivalent energy of several hundred supernovae. "For about one or two seconds, this burst was as luminous as all the rest of the entire universe". "In a region about a hundred miles across, the burst created conditions like those in the early universe, about one millisecond (1/1000th of a second) after the Big Bang", according to professor George Djorgovski. [1] (http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/1998/17/text/)

See also

References

  • Observer's Handbook, 1991, The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, From "The Brightest Stars" list

External links

fr:Liste des toiles les plus brillantes it:Lista delle stelle pi luminose nl:Lijst van helderste sterren ja:明るい恒星の一覧 pl:Najjaśniejsze gwiazdy ru:Список самых ярких звёзд zh:恆星亮度列表

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