Nidwalden

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Template:Infobox Canton

Nidwalden is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the centre of Switzerland. The population is 38,600 (in 2001). The capital is Stans.

Contents

Geography

Nidwalden is located in the centre of Switzerland. To the north it is bounded by the Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee), to all other directions by mountain chains.

History

In 1291 the people of Nidwalden joined Uri and Schwyz to form an alliance. At the time there was no state, but towards the end of the 14th century early forms of government were established. This included institutionalized assemblies and courts. In the 14th and 15th century the people of Nidwalden joined the people of Obwalden to discuss important matters, but the two cantons were never really one. For example Obwalden did not participate in the annexation of Bellinzona, Riviera and Blenio areas (today located in the canton of Ticino).

Around 1500 many people in Nidwalden worked as mercenary soldiers. Many of these soldiers later emigrated. This helped to lessen the pressure of a growing population. A popular destination was the Alsace. After rejecting a new constitution by Napoleon - the ideas of the French Revolution were not popular in such an agricultural area -, Nidwalden was attacked by French troops on 9 September 1798. Random destruction was caused and at least 400 people were killed. After the end of Napoleon's rule in 1814 most of the changes were reverted. Only in 1877 Nidwalden introduced a new constitution. The open assembly (Landsgemeinde) was abolished in 1997.

Politics

The cantonal executive (Regierungsrat) is composed of seven members. The local parliament has 60 seats.

Nidwalden sends only one deputy to the Swiss Council of States.

Economy

Up to the 20th century Nidwalden was dominated by agriculture. Cattle and cheese were exported mainly to the north of Italy. Around 1500 many people in Nidwalden worked as mercenary soldiers.

From the middle of the 19th century onwards, trade, industry and tourism gained momentum. Nevertheless, until the middle of the 20th century agriculture dominated the canton. Today a great number of small and middle-sized businesses dominate the economy. The largest employer is the airplane constructor Pilatus. The small and middle-sized businesses work in a wide range of areas. Many specialize in machine construction, medical equipment, international trade, optics and electronics.

Traditional areas such as forestry and agriculture are still of importance. Agriculture is specialized in cattle and diary farming. The farms are still run by individual families.

Tourism

Because of its mountainous geography tourism is important in Nidwalden. The lake and the mountains attract many tourists, both during the winter and the summer. Major resorts include Klewenalp, Stanserhorn (mountain), the region around Bannalp, and Bürgenstock.

Culture

Traditional culture in Nidwalden has been kept alive by many local organizations. There is traditional music, yodeling, dances, theaters and festivals. There are also a number of modern cultural events, such a concerts and galleries.

Municipalities

There are eleven municipalities: Beckenried, Buochs, Dallenwil, Emmetten, Ennetbürgen, Ennetmoos, Hergiswil, Oberdorf, Stans, Stansstad and Wolfenschiessen. The capital is Stans.

External links

Template:Switzerlandde:Kanton Nidwalden es:Nidwalden eo:Nidwalden fr:Nidwald it:Canton Nidvaldo nl:Nidwalden rm:Sutsilvania sv:Nidwalden

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