Rock formations

From Academic Kids

Rock formations as used in this article refers to isolated, scenic, or spectacular surface rock outcrops. These are usually the result of weathering and erosion sculpting the existing rock. Rock formation in general refers to specific sedimentary strata or other rock unit in stratigraphic and petrologic studies.

Contents

How rock formations are created

Geologists classify rocks into three types according to their origin. A rock structure can be created in any rock type or combination:-

Sedimentary rocks are created from bits of rocks that have broken off other rocks by wind or water erosion, and deposited by wind, ice, or water. Erosion later exposes them in their current form. An example is Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah.
Metamorphic rocks are created by rocks that have evolved into another kind of rock, usually by heat and pressure. An example is Mount Rushmore National Monument in South Dakota.
Igneous rocks are created when molten rock cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They may be either intrusive bodies or volcanic extrusives. Again, erosive forces sculpt their current forms. An example is Iao Needle in Maui, Hawaii.

Geologists have created a number of terms to describe different rock structures in the landscape that can be formed by natural processes:-

Inselberg is a residual relief feature. It can be an isolated hill, a knob, ridge or small mountain that rises abruptly, like an island, from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain. Inselberg is a German word that means "island mountain". Uluru/Ayers Rock in Australia is a noted example.

Lists of rock formations

Oceania

Asia

See also: Rock formations in Russia.

Middle East

Africa

Americas

United States of America

See Rock formations in the United States.

Canada

See Rock formations in Canada

Caribbean

Latin America

Europe

British Isles

Others in Europe

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