Safflower

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Safflower
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Safflower.jpg
Asteraceae - Carthamus Tinctorius


Scientific classification
Domain:Eukaryota
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Genus:Carthamus
Species:tinctorius
Binomial name
Carthamus tinctorius
(Mohler, Roth, Schmidt & Boudreaux, 1967)

Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual, usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves. Plants are 30 to 150 cm tall with globular flower heads (capitula) and commonly, brilliant yellow, orange or red flowers which bloom in July. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower has a strong taproot which enables it to thrive in dry climates, but the plant is very susceptible to frost injury from stem elongation to maturity.

Traditionally, the crop was grown for its flowers, used for colouring and flavouring foods and making red and yellow dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available, and in medicines. For the last fifty years or so, the plant has been cultivated mainly for the vegetable oil extracted from its seeds, which was formerly used in the paint industry. Today, it is used mainly as cooking oil, salad oil and for the production of margarine.

There are two types of safflower that produce different kinds of oil: one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant oil market is for the former, which is lower in saturates and higher in monounsaturates than olive oil, for example.

Safflower is one of humanity's oldest crops, but is a minor crop today, with about 600 000 t being produced commercially in more than sixty countries worldwide. India, United States, and Mexico are the leading producers, with Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, China, Argentina and Australia accounting for most of the remainder.

Safflower flowers are occasionally used as a cheaper substitute for saffron. Safflower seed is also used quite commonly as an alternative to sunflower seed in birdfeeders, as squirrels do not like the taste of it.

See also

External links

de:Frberdistel fr:huile de chardon da:tidselolie ja:ベニバナ nl:distelolie

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