Supreme Leader of Iran

From Academic Kids

The post of Supreme Leader (ولی فقیه or رهبر in Persian) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the central political and religious authority in the nation. While the Supreme Leader is the ultimate head of the Iranian political establishment, the President of Iran fullfils many of the classic roles for a head of state, such as accrediting ambassadors. The question how the Supreme Leader and the President match up with the theoretical definitions of head of state or head of government is a thorny one; however, de facto and de jure the Supreme Leader's authority is, as the title implies, supreme.

Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iran has had two Supreme Leaders:

The Supreme Leader is elected by the Assembly of Experts and serves for life, although he can theoretically be deposed by the same assembly. Although the members of the assembly of experts are elected by public vote, the Guardian Council (which is appointed by the Supreme Leader) vets the candidates before the election, so the process is not completely democratic. The candidates must be members of the Shia clergy. It should be noted that the Ayatollah Khomeini is specially mentioned in the constitution of Iran as the first Supreme Leader by the consensus of the Iranians, and he was not elected to the post by such an assembly.

The duties of The Supreme Leader are:

  1. Delineation of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran after consultation with the Nation's Expediency Discernment Council.
  2. Supervision over the proper execution of the general policies of the system.
  3. Issuing decrees for national referenda.
  4. Assuming supreme command of the armed forces.
  5. Declaration of war and peace, and the mobilization of the armed forces.
  6. Appointment, dismissal, and acceptance of resignation of:
    1. the fuqaha' on the Guardian Council.
    2. the supreme judicial authority of the country.
    3. the head of the radio and television network of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
    4. the chief of the joint staff.
    5. the chief commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.
    6. the supreme commanders of the armed forces.
  7. Resolving differences between the three wings of the armed forces and regulation of their relations.
  8. Resolving the problems, which cannot be solved by conventional methods, through the Nation's Exigency Council.
  9. Signing the decree formalizing the elections in Iran for the President of the Republic by the people.
  10. Dismissal of the President of the Republic, with due regard for the interests of the country, after the Supreme Court holds him guilty of the violation of his constitutional duties, or after a vote of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (The Majlis of Iran) testifying to his incompetence on the basis of Article 89 of the Constitution.
  11. Pardoning or reducing the sentences of convicts, within the framework of Islamic criteria, on a recommendation (to that effect) from the Head of judicial power. The Leader may delegate part of his duties and powers to another person.

See also

ja:イランの最高指導者 zh:伊朗精神领袖

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