Titanium dioxide

From Academic Kids

</table> Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. Titanium dioxide occurs in four forms: Pure titanium dioxide does not occur in nature but is derived from ilmenite or leuxoceneores. It is also readily mined in one of the purest forms, rutile beach sand. Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index (n=2.4), in which it is surpassed only by diamond. When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and color make it an excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors. TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, and most toothpastes. In cosmetic and skin care products, titanium dioxide is used both as a pigment and a thickener, and in almost every sunblock with a physical blocker, titanium dioxide is found both because of its refractive index and its resistance to discoloration under ultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability and ability to protect the skin from ultraviolet light. It is also used in resistance-type lambda probes (a type of oxygen sensor). Titanium Dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thus added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties. As TiO2 is exposed to UV light, it becomes increasingly hydrophilic, thus it can be used for anti-fogging coatings or self-cleaning windows. TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds and NOx. The Vinland map, the map of America ("Vinland") that was supposedly drawn during mid-15th century based on data from the Viking Age, has been declared a forgery on the basis that the ink on it contains traces of the TiO2-form anatase; TiO2 was not synthetically produced before the 1920s. Recently (1992) a counter-claim has been made that the compound can be formed from ancient ink.

External link

es:Dixido de titanio it:Diossido di titanio nl:Titaanwit ja:二酸化チタン pl:Dwutlenek tytanu ru:Титановые белила sv:Titandioxid

zh:二氧化鈦

Properties
Missing image
Titanium(IV)_oxide.jpg
Titanium(IV) oxide
General
Name Titanium(IV) oxide
Chemical formula TiO2
Appearance White solid

Physical

Formula weight 79.9 amu
Melting point ~2103 K (1830 °C)
Boiling point ~2773 K (2500 °C)
Density 4.2 ×103 kg/m3
Crystal structure rutile
Solubility insoluble

Thermochemistry

ΔfH0gas -249 kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid -879 kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid -944 kJ/mol
S0solid 51 J/mol·K

Safety

Ingestion Low hazard for accidental ingestion.
Inhalation Irritating, dangerous in the long term.
Skin Low hazard.
Eyes Low hazard.
More info Hazardous Chemical Database (http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/chemicals1/8/7743.html)

SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

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