Urethane

From Academic Kids

Missing image
Urethane.png
Structure of Urethane

Urethane 1. A polymer containing a urethane linkage. 2. Any organic chemical compound contaning a urethane functional group (or linkage). 3. The specific compound (NH2*COOC2H5). This ethyl ester is a white crystalline substance produced by the action of ammonia on ethyl carbonate or by heating urea nitrate and ethyl alcohol. It is used as a hypnotic, antipyretic, and antispasmodic.

Generally, a urethane is an ester of a carbamic acid (RNHCOOQ, where R and Q represent many different organic compounds). Many can be created by an isocyanate reaction with a hydroxyl group of an alcohol (or other hydroxy containing compound) according to the following formula:

                           H
                          /
                       R-N
R-N=C=O + H-O-Q →         \
                           C=O
                          /
                       Q-O

Although this reaction had been known for some decades, it was not until 1937 that Otto Bayer discovered how to make the very useful polyurethane plastics out of polyisocyanate and polyol (a molecule with multiple hydroxyl groups), (see Polyurethane). There are many other more specialized ways to make urethanes.

Urethane technology was brought to America in 1953 by Jean-Pierre Abbat and Dr. Fritz Hartmann.

Urethanes are used in pharmaceuticals, (bio)chemical analysis and plastics.

Urethane is also widely used in skateboard and in-line skate wheel production, effectively replacing the clay wheel used before that.


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